Saturday, January 15, 2011

The eight parts of speech

Brushing up on my grammar with Grammar by Diagram.

1. Noun.
  • Abstract noun: intangibles like thoughts or concepts (hope, peace).
  • Concrete noun: tangibles (house, rug, hat).
  • Regular noun: Plurals add 's' or 'es' (horse, horses).
  • Irregular noun: Plurals change the word (goose, geese).
  • Countable noun: Individual noun to which a number can be assigned (four tires).
  • Mass (uncountable) noun: Cannot be numbered (mist, fog).
  • Determiners: Nouns are sometimes preceded by a noun-marker called a determiner.
    • Possessive: John's shoe.
    • Demonstrative (this, that, these, those): This shoe.
    • Interrogative (what, which, whose): Whose shoe?
    • Article (a, an, the): A shoe. The shoe.
2. Pronoun.
  • Personal pronouns: Define point-of-view, gender, singular, or plural.
    • Nominative pronoun (also called subjective): A pronoun that is the subject of the sentence (He is nice.)
    • Objective pronoun: A pronoun that is the object of a sentence, direct or indirect (I like her.)
    • Reflexive pronoun: Clarify meaning. A pronoun that refers to a noun or pronoun used earlier in the sentence (Bill locked himself in the bathroom).
    • Intensive pronoun: Optional for emphasis (Bill himself wrote the report).
    • Possessive pronouns: Show possession of a noun (The shoes are hers).
      • Determiners: Pronoun becomes adjective (Her shoes). See #1 Noun determiners above.
  • Impersonal pronouns: Do not show POV, gender, or quantity.
    • Indefinite pronouns: A replacement for a non-specific noun (begin with any, some, every, or no; anyone, somebody, everything, nobody).
    • Reciprocal pronouns: Reflect reciprocating feelings (They kissed one another).
      • Determiners: Becomes an adjective for a noun (The mixed up one another's shoes).
    • Demonstrative pronoun: Demonstrates a specific noun; this, that, these, those (This shirt is my favorite).
    • Relative pronouns: Begin an adjective clause (also called a relative clause); who, whoever, whom, whomever,whose, which, that. Adjective clauses further define the noun that precedes them (The couch that has the hole in it.)
3. Verb.
  • Active verbs: A subject performs the action (Bill threw the ball).
    • Transitive verb: Verbs followed by an object (Bill threw the ball).
    • Intransitive verb: Verb not followed by an object (Bill fell).
  • State of being verbs: Refer to existence (am, are, is, was, were, had been)
    • Linking verbs: The verb can be replaced with a state of being verb (The candy tasted sweet. ---> The candy is sweet.)
    • Most linking verbs have something to do with the five senses (vision, taste, smell, hear, and feel).
  • Verb phrase: Verb phrases are always in this order: Modal + have + be + main verb
    • Modal = Shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, have to, had to, ought to.
  • Passive verbs: The subject is not performing the action (The ball was thrown by Bill). Passive verbs always contain two words: (1) Some form of "being", (2) The past participle (verb used with have or has).
4. Adjective.
  • Only modifies a noun.
  • Answers (1) which one, (2) how many, (3) what kind?
  • Predicate adjective or subjective complement follows the verb (The shirt was red).
  • Attributive adjectives precede nouns (The red shirt).
5. Adverb.
  • Only modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
  • Answers (1) how, (2) when, (3) where.
  • Adverb phrases modify a verb (He walked to his friend's house).
  • If a phrase, or word, can be moved around a sentence, and the sentence holds its original meaning, it is probably an adverb.
6. Preposition.
  • Prepositions express location, time, or condition.
    • Always followed by noun or pronoun, which is the object of the preposition.
  • Prepositions always appear as part of a phrase (never alone).
  • Prepositional phrases are always either adverbs or adjectives.
    • Adverbs can be moved around a sentence and retain meaning, adjectives cannot.
  • It is actually acceptable to end a sentence with a preposition if rearranging the sentence makes it even more awkward.
7. Conjunction.
  • Connects words, phrases, or clauses.
    • A phrase does not contain a subject and verb.
    • A clause contains a subject and verb.
  • And, but, or are conjunctions.
  • Coordinating conjunctions: FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
  • Subordinating conjunctions: join adverb clauses to the main clause.
  • Correlative conjunctions: appear in pairs (either/or, both/and, not only/but also, whether/or, neither/nor).
  • Conjunctive adverbs: join sentences by following a semi-colon.
8. Interjection.
  • An expression of emotion.

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